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Technical publications 2015

An automated residential demand response pilot experiment, based on day-ahead dynamic pricing

Vanthournout, Koen, Auteur; Dupont, Benjamin, Auteur; Foubert, Wim, Auteur; Stuckens, Catherine, Auteur; Claessens, Sven, Auteur; Laborelec

in Applied Energy N. 155 (1 October 2015). - 195-203

Dynamic pricing is a popular method to realize demand response. Automated response from smart appliances reduces the comfort impact for the users and hence reduces response fatigue concerns, while improving the price response. However, real-life experience with smart appliances is typically limited to heating and cooling appliances. The Linear pilot was a residential demand response pilot with 240 Belgian families using smart dishwashers, washing machines, tumble dryers and domestic hot water buffers in various experiments. Goal was to evaluate the performance of those smart appliances in real life circumstances for various applications of demand response. The results for the day-ahead dynamic pricing experiments, conducted from September 2013 till July 2014 at 58 families, are presented. These demonstrate a significant shift of the flexible share of the electricity consumption to the lower price periods. The dishwashers outperform the other appliances. The domestic hot water buffer shows the lowest performance in terms of relative cost savings, but its much larger energy consumption translates to larger absolute savings. As the flexible share of the total consumption remains small, the non-smart share represents a financial risk for the consumer. The smart appliances were well received by the users and no response fatigue was observed. However, there was a high variation in the group of pilot participants, both in terms of energy consumption as in terms of flexibility offered.

CFD modelling of CFBC as a valuable tool for the solid fuels-fired power plants of the future

Van Dijen, Frans, Auteur; Omer, Adlan, Auteur; Laborelec

in VGB PowerTech Vol. 95 - N. 10 [25/10/2015]. - 68-72

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling is an important tool for the manufacturers of Circulating Fluidised Bed Combustion (CFBC) systems. The application of CFD and critical analysis of the results require much knowledge. This is illustrated by modelling the Polaniec unit, assuming different fuels, loads and injections of secondary air. In the first parts of the paper attention is paid to the importance of CFBC for the future and to fuel flexibility, which is also of growing importance. The results of the CFD modelling highlight the importance of homogeneous and symmetrical design of the CFBC. Also fuel flexibility should be considered with the design of the CFBC." [VGB]

CFD simulations of Heavy Fuel Oil or Biodiesel in a steam generator for city heating

Tap, F.A., Auteur; Tyagi, R., Auteur; Rochaya, David, Auteur; Blondeau, Julien, Auteur; Laborelec. - Cenertec, 07/04/2015.

As part of a study of the conversion of Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) boilers to biodiesel, combustion simulations were conducted to evaluate the impact of fuel switching on the boiler operation, with particular attention to the evaluation of the heat fluxes and potential risks of DNB (Departure from Nucleate Boiling).

Two numerical analyses were performed on two nearly identical boiler systems, one fired with Heavy Fuel Oil and one fired with biodiesel. The 8 burners are arranged in two rows of 4 burners each, all with a swirling air flow in the same direction. Specific chemical kinetics for HFO and biodiesel were used and the geometry of the burners was accurately represented. Clear differences between the two types of flames are observed from the simulations, but the differences in the profiles of temperature and heat fluxes are moderate.

The main conclusions for the differences in the simulated flame topologies are:

Concerning the heat fluxes, the absolute peak flux obtained with biodiesel fuel is about 496 kW / m², against 656 kW / m² for HFO. Conservative calculations indicate that the mass as steam will not reach the critical steam as responsible for DNB. The flue gas temperatures at the inlet of superheater are substantially lower with biodiesel as compared to HFO. This has as consequence that the radiative heat transfer in the superheater section is less in the biodiesel case.

Published in : INFUB - 10th 2015 European Conference on Industrial Furnaces and Boilers

Collection and Generation of Sulfuric Acid Aerosols in a Wet Electrostatic Precipitator

Anderlohr, Christopher, Auteur; Brachert, Leonie, Auteur; Mertens, Jan, Auteur; Schaber, Karlheinz, Auteur; Laborelec. - Taylor & Francis, 21/01/2015.

Résumé : Wet electrostatic precipitators (WESPs) are considered to be a possible technology for the control of sulfuric acid mist. The performance of a lab-scale WESP was investigated as a precipitator for sulfuric acid aerosol droplets produced under controlled conditions in a pilot plant. It was found that for higher levels of residual SO2 in the flue gas, WESP collection efficiencies were greatly reduced due to aerosol formation inside the WESP. Investigations showed a strong correlation of aerosol emission from the WESP with incoming SO2 concentration and operating voltage. It is suspected that the reactive species produced in the nonthermal plasma of the corona discharge oxidize the SO2 to SO3 which forms sulfuric acid. This causes supersaturation with subsequent homogeneous nucleation and thus aerosol formation.

Published in : Aerosol Science and Technology, 49:3, 144-151

Counter-Measures for Aerosol-Based Emission [Article]

Khakharia, Purvil, Auteur; Mertens, Jan, Auteur; Brachert, Leonie, Auteur; Huizinga, Arjen, Auteur; Anderlohr, Christopher, Auteur; Schallert, Bernd, Auteur; Schaber, Karlheinz, Auteur; Goetheer, Earl, Auteur; Laborelec. - Ex Ordo, 16/06/2015.

Résumé : Aerosol based emissions in Post Combustion CO2 Capture have become a point of concern in the past few years. Several lab and pilot scale studies have focused on the quantifying these emissions, understanding the cause and subsequently proposing relevant mechanisms 1–3. Particularly, the particle number concentration is an important parameter in determining the extent of aerosol based emissions. Other factors such as particle size distribution, supersaturation, and reactivity of the amine also play an important role. Along with quantifying and understanding aerosol-based emissions, it is of greater importance to identify suitable counter-measures against it. It is known that aerosol-based emission of amine can be in the order of a gram per normal cubic meter and cannot be reduced by conventional emission countermeasures such as a general demister and a pump-around water wash. In this study, different counter-measures were tested for their ability to reduce aerosol based-emission originating from H2SO4 nuclei in the flue gas in CO2 capture mini-plant as shown in Figure 1.

Published in : The 8th Trondheim CCS Conference

Economic Analysis of a Micro Humid Air Turbine for Domestic Applications [Article]

/ Montero Carrero, Marina, Auteur; De Paepe, Ward, Auteur; Parente, Alessandro, Auteur; Blondeau, Julien, Auteur; Laget, Hannes, Auteur; Contino, Francesco, Auteur; Laborelec. - Elsevier, 12/01/2015.

Résumé : Micro Gas Turbines (mGT) appear as a promising technology for small-scale (up to 500 kW) Combined Heat and Power (CHP) production. However, their rather low electric efficiency limits their profitability when the heat demand decreases. Hot liquid water injection in mGTs –particularly within the micro Humid Air Turbine (mHAT) cycle– allows increasing electric efficiency by making use of the flue gas residual heat in moments of low heat demand.

Based on simulations performed on a Turbec T100 mGT –modified to operate as an mHAT– installed at the VUB, this paper presents an analysis of the economic profitability of such facility running on real network conditions. The study is performed assuming typical electricity and heat demand profiles for a domestic consumer. 25 natural gas and electricity price combinations have been taken into consideration, along with two types of domestic customers –with higher and lower heat demands. Results show that the profitability of the mHAT with respect to the equivalent CHP facility increases with higher electricity and lower natural gas prices. In particular, given a certain number of CHP running hours and a natural gas price, there is a threshold for the electricity price above which the net income of the mHAT unit is always higher than that of the corresponding CHP unit. In addition, water-cleaning costs for the mHAT case appear to constitute only 1 to 2.5% of total running costs.

Published in : Energy Procedia, Volume 61, 2014, Pages 1476-1482, ISSN 1876-6102

Environmental performance of electricity storage systems for grid applications, a life cycle approach

/ Oliveira, Luis, Auteur; Messagie, Maarten, Auteur; Mertens, Jan, Auteur; Laget, Hannes, Auteur; Coosemans, Thierry, Auteur; Van Mierlo, Joeri, Auteur; Laborelec

in Energy Conversion and Management Vol. 101 (1 September 2015). - 326–335

Résumé: In this paper, the environmental performance of electricity storage technologies for grid applications is assessed. Using a life cycle assessment methodology we analyze the impacts of the construction, disposal/end of life, and usage of each of the systems. Pumped hydro and compressed air storage are studied as mechanical storage, and advanced lead acid, sodium sulfur, lithium-ion and nickel–sodium-chloride batteries are addressed as electrochemical storage systems. Hydrogen production from electrolysis and subsequent usage in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell are also analyzed. The selected electricity storage systems mimic real world installations in terms of capacity, power rating, life time, technology and application. The functional unit is one kW h of energy delivered back to the grid, from the storage system. The environmental impacts assessed are climate change, human toxicity, particulate matter formation, and fossil resource depletion. Different electricity mixes are used in order to exemplify scenarios where the selected technologies meet specific applications. Results indicate that the performance of the storage systems is tied to the electricity feedstocks used during use stage. Renewable energy sources have lower impacts throughout the use stage of the storage technologies. Using the Belgium electricity mix of 2011 as benchmark, the sodium sulfur battery is shown to be the best performer for all the impacts analyzed. Pumped hydro storage follows in second place. Regarding infrastructure and end of life, results indicate that battery systems have higher impacts than mechanical ones because of lower number of cycles and life time energy.

Field experience with advanced condition monitoring of wind turbines

/ le Fevere de ten Hove, Olivier, Auteur; Laborelec

in VGB PowerTech Vol. 95 - N. 7 [25/07/2015]. - p. 57-63

Résumé: Condition monitoring for wind turbines must combine early warning of deviating operating behaviour, reliable fault detection, accurate fault diagnosis and the ability to handle versatile data inputs, and all this at an economically acceptable cost. Pattern recognition and intelligent data mining are a way forward to transfer the large amount of data that is continuously generated by a wind farm into actionable information, assisting the wind farm operator in the optimisation of the operation and maintenance process and in the assessment of the impact of events and actions on the remaining lifetime of the assets.

Fouling propensity of high-phosphorus solid fuels : Predictive criteria and ash deposits characterisation of sunflower hulls with P/Ca-additives in a drop tube furnace [Article]

/ De Fusco, L., Auteur; Boucquey, A., Auteur; Blondeau, Julien, Auteur; Jeanmart, H., Auteur; Contino, Francesco, Auteur; Laborelec. -

Elsevier, 22/12/2015. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2015.12.017.

Résumé : Fouling from the processing of residual biomass fuels in combustion applications is a major concern. This paper discusses the fouling behaviour of sunflower hulls with a high phosphorus (P) content by means of a broad fuel characterisation strategy including advanced predictive indices, the fuel selective leaching, multiple deposition tests in a Drop Tube Furnace (DTF) and deposits analysis with scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive X-rays spectroscopy (SEM–EDS). First, we summarise the P-role in the ash chemistry, with a focus on the fouling mechanisms. Second, a characterisation strategy of the ash, based on three indices, including some details from the fuel selective leaching, is proposed to describe the P-rich fuels propensity to foul. The developed approach could be used as a complement to chemical equilibrium models. Thirdly, the characterisation strategy is applied to sunflower hulls. Deposition tests in an industrial scale DTF are performed for the raw fuel, and for the fuel with phosphoric acid (H3PO4) water solution and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as additives, to obtain different P/K and P/Ca ratios in the fuel composition. The results show that increasing the fuel P-content allows to capture the alkali metals in alkali–alkaline earths–phosphates and alkali–phosphates phases, reducing the occurrence of deposits of S- and Cl-compounds. Low melting temperature phases can be reduced enhancing the formation of coarser, high melting temperatures ash particles formed by K/Na–Ca/Mg–phosphates, by means of an optimised addition of phosphorus- and active calcium-based additives. The experimental results confirmed the added value of the high-P fuels predictive characterisation strategy.

Published in : Fuel, Volume 170, 15 April 2016, Pages 16–26

Impact of smart charging on the EV battery ageing - Discussion from a 3 years real life experience [Article]

/ De Vroey, Laurent, Auteur; Jahn, Rafael, Auteur; Omar, Noshin, Auteur; Van Mierlo, Joeri, Auteur; Laborelec. - 03/05/2015. - 8 p.

Résumé : Smart charging is related to a possible adjustment of the charging sequences with some energetic constraints. It can be defined in different ways, namely depending on the specific objectives. However, they all result in similar consequences for the charging sequences, with regard to conventional charging: potential delay, interruption(s) and power modulation of the charging cycles.

It is commonly admitted that smart charging will be necessary to face the growing deployment of EVs, namely for the local grid operators. Moreover, from the user point of view, smart charging can be seen as an additional motivation for the choice of an EV instead of a conventional car, if e.g. lower electricity tariffs are proposed for charging flexibility. In this paper, a quantitative evaluation is performed of EV battery ageing, in function of the charging conditions, with a special focus on the smart charging specificities. The study is based on real data from a three years continuous monitoring of five Peugeot iOn cars, a first of a kind campaign that was performed in Belgium in the Brussels area during the period 2011-2014. Different use profiles and charging patterns were observed. Among other elements, battery capacity and battery efficiency and their evolution in time were calculated, taking into account various factors, such as the seasonal impacts. It will first be highlighted that, whatever their charging patterns, all the considered cars are showing a significant flexibility potential, making them good candidates for smart charging. The impact of smart charging on battery ageing will then be discussed, with a focus on the charging frequency, the average state of charge and the impact of faster versus slower charge on battery capacity. This long time monitoring period allows to clearly identify the time evolution trends, leading to unique conclusions from the real life.

Published in : EVS28 International Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition (2015)

Impacts of electricity mix, charging profile, and driving behavior on the emissions performance of battery electric vehicles : A Belgian case study

/ Rangaraju, Surendraprabu, Auteur; De Vroey, Laurent, Auteur; Messagie, Maarten, Auteur; Mertens, Jan, Auteur; Van Mierlo, Joeri, Auteur; Laborelec

in Applied Energy N. 148 (15 June 2015). - 496-505

Résumé: Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) are considered to be a better alternative for conventional vehicles in the matter of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and urban air pollution reduction. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a widely used methodology to quantify and compare the environmental impacts of vehicle technologies. In this study, we compare the life cycle environmental emissions of CO2 equivalent (CO2e), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOX) and particulate matters (PM) of the BEV with the petrol and diesel vehicles. Unlike many other literatures, this study uses the real-world energy consumption data for the environmental assessment. In addition, this study explores the possible impact of the short term and long term fluctuations in the electricity mix and the vehicle charging profile, on the life cycle emissions performance of BEV. The influence of charging profile on the well-to-tank (WTT) emissions (i.e. emissions associated with electricity production) of BEV is discussed by using hourly emissions and different possible peak and off-peak charging time frames. The results of this study proves off-peak charging is a better option to reduce the life cycle emissions, compared to peak charging. When a BEV is charged during off-peak hours instead of peak hours, the well-to-tank CO2, SO2, NOX and PM emissions per km can be reduced significantly. Also, this study emphasizes the importance of taking driving behaviors of users and auxiliary energy consumption into account. This aspect is analyzed by comparing the empirical energy consumption and the corresponding WTT emissions of BEV, with the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) standard values. The results reveal that the auxiliary energy consumption is responsible for, nearly a third of the WTT emissions.

A modelling approach for the assessment of an air-dryer economic feasibility for small-scale biomass steam boilers [Article]

De Fusco, L., Auteur; Jeanmart, H., Auteur; Blondeau, Julien, Auteur; Laborelec. - Elsevier, 13/02/2015.

Résumé : Fuel drying is an energetically and economically expensive pretreatment process, which may not be worth the investment in the case of small-scale generation plants. This paper presents an investigation on the air dryer feasibility to enhance the operation of biomass steam boiler. In the proposed approach, the external drying technology using preheated air and the biomass steam production system is modelled in terms of energy and an economical analysis. A focus is given to the system size influence on the dryer economic suitability: the smallest size of the biomass combustion system for which fuel drying is a suitable solution, from the economic point of view, is computed. In the computations, the heat used for drying is assumed to be part of the cost for operating the dryer and the thermal balance of the system is assumed to be previously verified. According to the model results, if the steam production plant operational time is above 8000 h/y, wood chips drying is feasible if the system size is larger than 1.78 tdaf/h of fuel processed.

Published in : Fuel Processing Technology (In Press)

Online Corrosion Monitoring in a Postcombustion CO2 Capture Pilot Plant and its Relation to Solvent Degradation and Ammonia Emissions [Article]

/ Mertens, Jan, Auteur; De Vroey, Séverine, Auteur; Khakharia, Purvil, Auteur; Huizinga, Arjen, Auteur; Fernandez, Eva Sanchez, Auteur; Srinivasan, Sridhar, Auteur; Vlugt, Thijs J.H., Auteur; Goetheer, Earl, Auteur; Laborelec. -

American chemical Society (ACS), 20/04/2015.

Résumé : Corrosion in amine treating plants is known to cause integrity failures, plant shutdown, costly repairs, and so forth. The use of an amine treatment system for postcombustion CO2 capture brings additional challenges in terms of the flue gas quality, flue gas composition, operating conditions, scale of operation, and so forth. These differences are expected to have a significant impact on the overall well-being of the plant and the maintenance strategy over its lifetime. The degradation of solvent, by oxidative and thermal degradation pathways, leads to the formation of various degradation products which are known to be corrosive. The oxidative degradation of amine leads to the formation of ammonia which can be emitted to the atmosphere in the treated flue gas stream. This study aims at verifying the interrelation between (1) solvent degradation, (2) corrosion, and(3) NH3 emissions, based on two test campaigns of over 1500 operating hours, in a CO2 capture pilot plant. An online tool for real-time corrosion monitoring, SmartCET, is presented and compared with offline corrosion coupon. The different process and operating conditions such as the change in the flue gas composition, start-up and shutdown, and solvent replacement were correlated with the variations in the corrosion parameters (general corrosion rate, pitting factor, and corrosion mechanism indicator (CMI)), for both campaigns. The three parameters showed only a small increase for most part of both the campaigns(>75 days), and followed a similar trend. However, during both the campaigns, a rapid increase of all the three parameters was observed. In one of the campaigns, the three parameters increased by about 2 orders of magnitude in a time period of only about 20 days, which points toward an autocatalytic out of control solvent chemistry. The common characteristic before the onset of autocatalytic solvent chemistry, is the re-start-up of the pilot plant after an extended period of shutdown. On the basis of these tests, the use of an online corrosion monitoring tool will enable long-term steady state operation of a full scale postcombustion CO2 capture plant.

Published in : Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 2015, 54 (19), pp 5336–5344

Results of fly ash quality for disposal options from high thermal shares up to pure biomass combustion in a pilot-scale and large scale pulverized fuel power plants [Article]

/ Fuller, A., Auteur; Carbo, M., Auteur; Maier, J., Auteur; Scheffknecht, G., Auteur; Savat, Patrick, Auteur; Laborelec.

Résumé : This work evaluated fly ash quality from combustion of high thermal shares of biomass fuels. Woody biomass was (co)combusted in an industrial scale pulverized fuel power plant, and a herbaceous biomass was co-combusted in a pilot-scale test facility. Ashes from the electrostatic precipitator were collected and evaluated for chemical compounds, leaching behavior, and mechanical properties. Results from the large-scale industrial pulverized fuel showed the ashes still had good reactivity and mechanical properties according to EN450-1, which is a good unexpected occurrence regarding strength development. Results from the pilot-scale test facility showed that a herbaceous biomass co-fired up to 50% thermal share does not seem to have any negative impact on existing fly ash utilization routes. It is concluded that co-firing clean woody biomass at a very high thermal share and co-firing a high thermal share of a herbaceous biomass with lignite would not change current utilization practices. In practice ashes from high thermal shares are not used due to safeguards in standards form a lack of experience from enough performance testing. Thus, the findings can lead to support for standards that incorporate other assessment methods for biomass fly ash utilization requirements.

Published in : Renewable energy, Vol. 75, March 2015

Sea water ingress during the commissioning of an USC power plant

/ Senécat, Anthony, Auteur; Ertryckx, Roger, Auteur; Laborelec

in VGB PowerTech Vol. 95 - N. 6 [25/06/2015]. - 69-72

Résumé: During the commissioning of an ultra supercritical coal-fired power plant an event occurred in the condenser which resulted in a serious ingress of seawater in the water-steam cycle. The plant was operated more than 10 hours with this sea water ingress leading to uncontrolled chemistry in the whole water-steam cycle, except for the steam turbine which was in bypass mode. In the aftermath of the incident, a root cause analysis was performed to determine the origin of the pollution and to understand the chemistry trends during the incident. Questions about the integrity of the boiler were raised as the incident occurred a few weeks after the thermal passivation so the protective oxide layer might have been washed out during the incident. Some tube samples were extracted for metallographic examinations.

The new 200 MWe wood-fired CFBC at Polaniec/Poland /

Van Dijen, Frans, Auteur; Gennart, Héloise, Auteur; Laborelec

in VGB PowerTech Vol. 95 - N. 1/2 [17/03/2015]. - 48-51

Note de contenu: GDF SUEZ ENERGY operates a new CFBC plant with a capacity of about 200 MWe at the Polaniec site in Poland. The main fuel is wood, especially wet wood chips. The boiler was supplied by Foster Wheeler and was connected to the exiting/upgraded steam turbines, generator and condenser. First operating experience is presented and proposals are made as regards the future and potentials of CFBC which can be further improved and advanced. Particularly existing experience is to be incorporated into new designs and constructions. Besides, new R&D projects are to be realised.

Understanding aerosol based emissions in a Post Combustion CO2 Capture process : Parameter testing and mechanisms

/ Khakharia, Purvil, Auteur; Brachert, Leonie, Auteur; Mertens, Jan, Auteur; Anderlohr, Christopher, Auteur; Huizinga, Arjen, Auteur; Fernandez, Eva Sanchez, Auteur; Schallert, Bernd, Auteur; Schaber, Karlheinz, Auteur; Vlugt, Thijs J.H., Auteur; Goetheer, Earl, Auteur; Laborelec

in International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control N. 34 (March 2015). - 63-74

Résumé: tSolvent emissions from a Post Combustion CO2Capture (PCCC) process can lead to environmental hazards and higher operating cost. Aerosol based emissions in the order of grams per Nm3have been reported from PCCC plants. These emissions are attributed to the presence of particles such as sulphuric acid aerosol droplets in the flue gas. Recently, we confirmed the relation between particle number concentration in the inlet flue gas and aerosol based emissions of monoethanolamine (MEA) as the solvent. The operating parameters and especially the presence of CO2were found to influence the extent of aerosol based emissions. In this study, the following parametric experimental tests were performed in a mini CO2capture plant: changing the lean solvent temperature, the pH of the lean solvent, and the CO2concentration in the flue gas. Moreover, other commonly used CO2capture solvents, a mixture of 2-amino-2-methyl-propanol(AMP) with piperazine (Pz), and AMP with potassium taurate (KTau), were evaluated for their potential for aerosol formation. Increasing the temperature of the lean solvent resulted in a lowering of the amine emissions. Aerosol based emissions were observed only at a relatively high lean pH. As the CO2content of the flue gas was reduced from 12.7 to 0.7 vol.%, a maximum in the emissions was observed at 6 vol.% of CO2. Aerosol based emissions for both AMP (1500–3000 mg/Nm3) and Pz (200–400 mg/Nm3) were measured, while no aerosol based emissions were observed for AMP-Ktau as a solvent even in the presence of sulphuric acid aerosols in the flue gas. The ratio of AMP:Pz emissions was found to be much lower in the presence of aerosols (5–12) as compared to only volatile emission (∼26). This indicated that Pz has a preference to be in the aerosol phase over AMP. Three aspects were found to be important for aerosol based emissions in a CO2capture absorber: (i) the particle number concentration, (ii) the supersaturation, and (iii) the reactivity of the amine. These observations add to the existing understanding of aerosol formation and growth by heterogeneous nucleation in counter-current gas liquid absorption processes, by considering the reactivity of the components.

Technical Publications 2014

Multiscale Technique for Biomass Particle Combustion : Integration of a 2D particle combustion module in ANSYS Workbench

Blondeau, Julien, Auteur; Boland, A., Auteur; Boucquey, A., Auteur;

Laborelec. - 19/03/2014. Published in : Modeling Combustion and Reacting Flows - A joint ANSYS & Dacolt Seminar

Two years behind the wheel of electric vehicles: a unique monitoring experience in Belgium

De Vroey, Laurent, Auteur; Laborelec in Revue E tijdschrift Vol. 129 - N. 4 (octobre/oktober - novembre/november - décembre/.december 2013). - 11-14

The first new generation electric cars were introduced in Belgium by the end of 2010. Laborelec and Electrabel have implemented and in-depth monitoring in the first available Peugeot iOn cars, with a technical support from the Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Battery current, voltage and state-of-charge are monitor, as well as odometer data, instant speed, GPS coordinates and ambient temperature. The tests were started in June 2011 and are still running. This initiative is the first of its kind in Belgium.

Different driving styles, trip profiles, type and intensity of use were observed, leading to different energy patterns. Seasonal impacts on battery efficiency and auxiliary consumption are taken into account. This gives valuable information that cannot be obtained from theoretical, e.g. NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) measuring conditions.

In this paper, some key figures are given to get an insight on the users' and cars' behavior. Feedback elements from the users are given after two years of use. 

The hourly life cycle carbon footprint of electricity generation in Belgium, bringing a temporal resolution in life cycle assessment

Messagie, Maarten, Auteur; Mertens, Jan, Auteur; Oliveira, Luis, Auteur; Rangaraju, Surendraprabu, Auteur; Sanfelix, Javier, Auteur; Coosemans, Thierry, Auteur; Van Mierlo, Joeri, Auteur; Macharis, Cathy, Auteur; Laborelec in Applied Energy N. 134 (1 December 2014). - 469-476

In the booming research on the environmental footprint of, for example, electrical vehicles, heat pumps and other (smart) electricity consuming appliances, there is a clear need to know the hourly CO2 content of one kW h of electricity. Since the CO2 footprint of electricity can vary every hour; the footprint of for example an electric vehicle is influenced by the time when the vehicle is charged. With the availability of the hourly CO2 content of one kW h, a decision support tool is provided to fully exploit the advantages of a future smart grid. In this paper, the GWP (Global Warming Potential) per kW h for each hour of the year is calculated for Belgium using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. This enables evaluating the influence of the electricity demand on the greenhouse gas emissions. Because of the LCA approach, the CO2 equivalent content does not only reflect activities related to the production of the electricity within a power plant, but includes carbon emissions related to the building of the infrastructure and the fuel supply chain. The considered feedstocks are nuclear combustible, oil, coal, natural gas, biowaste, blast furnace gas, and wood. Furthermore, renewable electricity production technologies like photovoltaic cells, hydro installations and wind turbines are covered by the research. The production of the wind turbines and solar panels is more carbon intensive (expressed per generated kW h of electricity) than the production of other conventional power plants, due to the lower electricity output. The overall average GWP per kW h is 0.184 kg CO2eq/kW h. Throughout the 2011 this value ranges from a minimum of 0.102 kg CO2eq/kW h to a maximum of 0.262 kg CO2eq/kW h depending on the timing. 

ELPI+ measurements of aerosol growth in an amine absorption column

Mertens, Jan, Auteur; Brachert, Leonie, Auteur; Desagher, Dominique, Auteur; Thielens, Marie-Laure, Auteur; Khakharia, Purvil, Auteur; Goetheer, Earl, Auteur; Schaber, Karlheinz, Auteur; Laborelec in International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control N. 23 (April 2014). - 44-50

Recently, studies have appeared pointing out that aerosols can dominate the total amine emission fromamine based PCCC pilot plant scale installations. For the design of countermeasure types (upstream ordownstream of the PCCC installation), it is crucial to have an idea of the aerosol size distribution andnumbers entering or leaving the absorber. This study is the first to present this kind of data and shouldserve future installations when designing aerosol emission countermeasures. H2SO4aerosols entering the absorber are observed to be extremely small 

A Norm Behavior Based Deterministic Methodology for Demand Response Base Lines

Vanthournout, Koen, Auteur; Foubert, Wim, Auteur; Stuckens, Catherine, Auteur; Robben, Bert, Auteur; Premereur, Geert, Auteur; Laborelec. - [S.l.] : Power Systems Computation Conference (PSCC), 18/08/2014. 18th Power Systems Computation Conference (18/08/2014)

A Norm Behavior Based Deterministic Methodology for Demand Response Base Lines

One of the keystones required to bring demand response from academia and pilots to the industry and the market, is a reliable demand response base line methodology to measure the performance of the DR resources and for DR billing settlement. However, most base line methodologies proposed in the literature use statistical analysis of historic consumption data when no demand response is active. The availability of such data drops as demand response is more continuously used.

We propose and define a base line methodology that builds on a norm behavior convention, where this norm behavior can be derived from the status and configuration data of the flexible devices, rather than from historic measurements. This is illustrated for postponable and buffered appliances.

Norm behavior base lines can also be used for interfacing between aggregator and user of the flexibility. This has been deployed in the Linear residential demand response pilot to realize intraday balancing. The first results show that the base line methodology operates as expected. They also show the asymmetry of the flexibility offered by postponable non-interruptable white good appliances.

Water footprinting of electricity generated by combined cycle gas turbines using different cooling technologies

Mertens, Jan, Auteur; Prieur-Vernat, Anne, Auteur; Corbisier, Dominique, Auteur; Favrot, Elsa, Auteur; Boon, Gustaaf, Auteur; Laborelec in Journal of Cleaner Production Vol. 86 (January 2015). - 201-208

Efforts undertaken for reducing environmental impacts of energy production have been primarily focused on carbon reduction while the fact that energy production also requires water has been largely overlooked. During the last decade, and despite the fact that global warming still remains today the focus of many environmental evaluations, water scarcity issues have increasingly received attention. Despite the fact that recently, an increasing demand for large industrial companies to calculate and report on their water footprint exists, water resources have only recently been addressed in life cycle assessment (LCA) and their assessment still lacks wide application. The paper presents a practitioner's experience with respect to the application of three recently developed water footprinting methodologies that are considered as current-state-of-the-art. The methods are applied with as objective the estimation of the water footprint of combined cycle gas turbines with different cooling technologies. The study reveals that absolute values of water footprints (Leq. kWh 1) are very different among methods and therefore results are not directly comparable in terms of their absolute results. In contrast, ranking among power plants agree for the different methods when large differences in water consumption/impact exist. However, the ranking may differ between different methods when differences are small. It therefore remains impossible to select one method as the preferred method to use. This study therefore serves as support to the recently emerging working groups (eg. WULCA) that aim at harmonizing the different existing methodologies. 

Weldability assessment and high temperature properties of advanced creep resisting austenitic steel DMV304HCu

Vekeman, Johan , Auteur; Huysmans, Staf, Auteur; De Bruycker, Evy, Auteur; Laborelec in Welding in the World Vol. 58 - N. 6 (November 2014). - 873-882

The modern (USC PP) applying the 600 °C technology require advanced austenitic stainless steels in superheater/reheater systems in order to cope with the increased steam parameters. Different grades of austenitic stainless steels have been developed by increasing Cr contents, alloying with stabilizing and precipitating elements as well as thermomechanical heat treatments resulting in high creep rupture strengths and improved oxidation/corrosion resistance. In the context of a collaborative research project, DMV304HCu (X10CrNiCuNb18-9-3) has been selected. The main focus of the research project was on characterization and weldability assessment. As a result, the base metal under investigation was compared with governing code cases and specifications. Base metal chemical composition, microstructures, mechanical properties, reheat cracking sensitivity, hot ductility as well as creep rupture strengths have been investigated. Aweldability assessment, including thermal simulation and welding procedure qualifications, has been performed to establish parameter windows for similar and dissimilar welding. Dissimilar welding between Grade 92 and austenitic stainless steel tubes has been performed. The project also took the opportunity to investigate the behavior of a recently developed gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) P87 consumable for dissimilar welding. Cross-weld creep rupture testing has been conducted for both similar and dissimilar welding, and aging tests addressed microstructural stability. 

(Remaining) Lifetime Assessment of Power Plant Parts to Safely Exploit their Full Lifetime Potential and Reduce OPEX

Dutoit, Michael, Auteur; Thielemans, Fabien, Auteur; Degive, Xavier, Auteur; Laborelec. - 2014. POWERGEN Middle East 2014 (12/10/2014)

High reliability and profitability are two important aspects of the current power plants in the Middle East. At the same time, newer power plant technologies put higher demands on the different power plant parts. So (remaining) lifetime assessment of different components plays a crucial role in today’s power plant management. In particular, lifetime assessment makes sense for most parts being operated at high temperature, where creep damage accumulates, like boiler tubing and gas and steam turbine blading. A high-quality lifetime analysis helps power plant owners to make decisions concerning life extension or repair of theoretically end-of-life components. It also plays an important role in planning maintenance intervals and in root cause failure analyses. As materials and/or parts geometry become more and more sophisticated, the understanding of materials degradation and the implementation of advanced testing techniques becomes of the utmost importance in lifetime analysis. A combination of theoretical considerations, calculations and material testing is often necessary. With this paper, GDF Suez Laborelec discusses some important lifetime assessment considerations, and the advanced methodologies (e.g. parametric model-based creep data processing) and testing technologies (e.g. miniature creep testing) that can be used to deal with them. The considerations are illustrated with real case studies, like the lifetime extension of E-class gas turbine blading and the premature lifetime exhaustion of T91 boiler tubes. 

Led-verlichting en kwaliteit

Van Heur, Rob, Auteur;
 Laborelec in LED Magazine Vol. 2 - N. 4 (December 2014). - 44

Evaluation of the DMX process for industrial pilot demonstration - methodology and results

Raynal, Ludovic, Auteur; Briot, Patrick, Auteur; Dreillard, Matthieu, Auteur; Broutin, Paul, Auteur; Mangiaracina, Angela, Auteur; Salghetti Drioli, Benedetta, Auteur; Politi, Monia, Auteur; La Marca, Cristiana, Auteur; Mertens, Jan, Auteur; Thielens, Marie-Laure, Auteur; Laborie, Géraldine, Auteur; Normand, Laurent, Auteur; Laborelec.

The SP3 Subproject of the OCTAVIUS EU FP7 project was dedicated to the demonstration of the DMX CO2 capture process,developed by IFP Energies nouvelles (IFPEN) and licensed by PROSERNAT, on the 3.5 MWe equivalent industrial pilot of ENEL at Brindisi. The DMX process is based on the particular property of demixing solvents to form, for specific CO2 loadings and temperature conditions, two immiscible liquid phases. The light phase being almost free of CO2, only the high capacity heavy phase is sent to the stripper, which makes possible energy savings but also requires an adapted process flow scheme and extra equipment. Prior to launch the corresponding retrofit and perform the pilot tests, two conditions were settled. First, a quantitative evaluation of the process must show a significant interest in comparison with the benchmark MEA 30wt.%. To evaluate this first conditions, 24 criteria were considered. Second, an acceptable cost for the retrofit of the existing industrial pilot, determined from a Front End Engineering and Design (FEED) study must be obtained. Most of this paper deals with the evaluation of these two conditions which ended in November 2013 and a small section is dedicated to the FEED study. It is shown that most of the parameters considered for the process evaluation are in good agreement with the initial targets. The proposed evaluation methodology could be used for any new process prior to demonstration.

Published in : Energy Procedia 63 (2014) 6298 - 6309 - ELSEVIER

Predicting Aerosol Based Emissions in a Post Combustion CO2 Capture Process Using an Aspen Plus Model

Khakharia, Purvil, Auteur; Mertens, Jan, Auteur; Vlugt, Thijs J.H., Auteur; Goetheer, Earl, Auteur; Laborelec. - [S.l.] : Elsevier, 01/12/2014. - 911 – 925. Industrial scale implementation of post combustion CO2 capture (PCCC) can be hindered by solvent emissions due to its impact on the environment and the operating costs. The issue of aerosol based emissions has only been recently reported for a PCCC process and very little fundamental knowledge is available in the scientific community on this topic. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanism of aerosol formation and growth so that appropriate countermeasures can be applied in reducing the total emissions. In this study, a simplified methodology is presented for predicting aerosol based emissions from a CO2 capture

column of a PCCC process. The basis of this methodology is to split the counter-current gas-liquid interaction from the cocurrent gas-aerosol interaction. The absorption column is discretised into multiple alternating gas-liquid and gas-aerosol sections in Aspen Plus with an assumption that aerosols behave as a continuous phase rather droplets. The degree of supersaturation, which is important for aerosol formation and growth, is calculated along the column. The effect of the changes in parameters of the PCCC plant, such as the CO2 content of the inlet flue gas, the lean solvent temperature and the lean solvent loading on aerosol based emissions are investigated. The aerosol based emissions follows the trend of the supersaturation ratio in the absorber column.

Published in : Energy Procedia 63 ( 2014 ) 911 – 925 - ELSEVIER

Predicting amine mist formation based on aerosol number concentration and size measurements in flue gas

Mertens, Jan, Auteur; Brachert, Leonie, Auteur; Desagher, Dominique, Auteur; Schallert, Bernd, Auteur; Khakharia, Purvil, Auteur; Goetheer, Earl, Auteur

Amine based solvent used for CO2 capture can be lost during the process due to: degradation, vaporization, mechanical losses and aerosol (mist) formation. Only recently, studies have appeared pointing out that aerosols can dominate the total amine emission at pilot plant scale behind coal fired power plants. Future full scale amine scrubber installations will be imposed emission limit values (ELV) for a number of components including NH3 and the amine itself. Most likely these ELV will be expressed as maximum concentrations tolerated in the CO2 poor flue gas leaving the stack so it is important to prevent or cure amine aerosol emission. The study presents a novel combination of two existing measurement techniques, that measure: (i) amine emissions from the top of the absorber using FTIR and (ii) PSD of the incoming flue gas using the ELPI+. The study is the first to show how combining these two measurement techniques allows to predict the presence or absence of mist formation. This hypothesis is based on information obtained during several measurement campaigns on different pilot plants.

Language : English Keywords : amine emission;aerosol;mist;Fourier Transformed Infra Red (FTIR);Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI)

Published in : Energy Procedia 63 ( 2014 ) 893 – 901 - ELSEVIER

A wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) as countermeasure to mistformation in amine based carbon capture

Mertens, Jan, Auteur; Anderlohr, Christopher, Auteur; Rogiers, Pieter, Auteur; Brachert, Leonie, Auteur; Khakharia, Purvil, Auteur

in International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control N. 31 (December 2014). - 175–181

This study is to our knowledge the first to evaluate the potential of a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP)to prevent aerosol formation issues inside amine based carbon capture installations. A WESP is a suitableoption since this study proves that it is very efficient for the removal of the mist precursors inside the fluegas to be treated. Although a significant capital investment cost may be involved, energy requirements (i.e.low pressure drop), maintenance and therefore operational costs are expected to be very low. However,it is shown here that the WESP must be installed at the right location, i.e. the flue gas to be treated mustcontain no or very low levels of SO2. The reason is that the WESP’s aerosol removal efficiency decreasesstrongly in the presence of SO2gas and in a certain range also with increasing voltages. This limits thepositive effect that the WESP has on reducing the MEA emissions from the absorber since a large numberof mist formation precursors remain in the flue gas. In the presence of SO2, a WESP can actually produceH2SO4aerosols. It is shown that these newly created aerosols are very small (low nanometre range).This information is very important for future pilot and demo amine carbon capture installations thinkingof implementing a WESP as countermeasure to aerosol formation issues. It implies that no or very lowlevels of SO2should still be present in the flue gas before entering the WESP. Since most of the aminecarbon capture installations have a pre-scrubber (usually using NaOH to remove residual SO2in the flueleaving the power plant’s FGD) in front of their amine absorber, the WESP must be installed behind thispre-scrubber and not in front of it.

Language : English Keywords : Wet electrostatic precipitator;Monoethanolamine;Emission measurement;Aerosols;Mist;Post combustion carbon capture

Phenomenology of Hydrogen Flaking in Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessels

De Bruycker, Evy, Auteur; De Vroey, Séverine, Auteur; Stubbe, Jacqueline, Auteur; Huysmans, Staf, Auteur; Laborelec. - [S.l.] : Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), 01/06/2014. - pp. 439-444.

Recently, the problem of hydrogen flaking resurfaced, when internal defects were detected in the reactor pressure vessels of two Belgian nuclear power plants. These defects turned out to be hydrogen flakes formed during the fabrication of these pressure vessels. The goal of this publication is to provide important insights into the phenomenon of hydrogen flaking, the different parameters that play a role in the mechanism, as well as the typical morphology and location of these flakes. Therefore an extensive literature study was combined with a detailed metallurgical characterization of a significant number of flakes. Hydrogen flaking is a fabrication problem, which is strongly linked with segregation phenomena. A combination of a sufficient amount of hydrogen, stresses and a sensitive microstructure causes hydrogen flaking. For these reasons hydrogen flakes inside large reactor pressure vessels are found in the so-called ghost lines, which originate from segregation processes during casting.

Language : English Published in : Materials Testing, Vol. 56 - N. 6

HV/MV transformer peak load forecasting for the application demand response at an industrial site, a case study in the Netherlands

Van Lumig, Michiel, Auteur; Didden, Marcel, Auteur; Haut, Bertrand, Auteur; Luijten, Jos, Auteur; Veldman, Else, Auteur; Laborelec. - Belgium : CIRED, 11/06/2014.

CIRED workshop 2014: Challenges of Implementing Active Distribution System Management (11/06/2014)

Research to use Demand Response (DR) for reducing the load of grid assets. To implement DR, knowledge is needed of the congestion and of DR possibilities. This paper describes a method to forecast the load and peak moments of a HV/MV transformer. With this forecast will be evaluated how DR can help to reduce the load of the HV/MV transformer in case of potential overloading.

Language : English

Technical Publications 2013

Comparison of Gamma-Radiation Induced Attenuation in Al-Doped, P-Doped and Ge-Doped Fibres for Dosimetry

Alexey V. Faustov; A. Gusarov; Marc Wuilpart; Patrice Megret; Andrei A. Fotiadi; Leonid B. Liokumovich; I. O. Zolotovskiy; Alexandr L. Tomashuk; Tanguy de Schoutheete

Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on , vol.60, no.4, pp.2511,2517, Aug. 2013

Abstract: We have investigated radiation induced absorption in Al-doped, P-doped and Ge-doped optical fibres under Co source gamma-radiation up to a total dose of 71 kGy at two temperatures 30 and 80 C. The Al-doped and P-doped fibres demonstrated high radiation sensitivity required for the optical fibre dosimetry. The RIA response to temperature increase from 30 to 80 C depended on the dopant. In Al-doped fibres the absorption level decreased by 25% whereas in P-doped fibres it increased by at least 10%. For comparison we also tested standard telecom-grade Ge-doped fibres. Such fibres demonstrated a monotonous rise of the RIA during the whole irradiation with a small decrease of sensitivity at the higher temperature

Detection and monitoring of shorted field windings in a large 4-pole generator rotor through vibration analysis : a case study

Koenraad De Bauw; Mirza Osmanovic; Kris Matthys

SIRM 2013 - 10th International Conference on Vibrations in Rotating Machines, Berlin, Germany, 27. February 2013

Abstract: Laborelec is responsible for the follow-up of the vibration behaviour of a fleet of more than 100 shaft lines within the power generation division of GDF-Suez. Based on an experience of more than 20 years with continuous vibration monitoring in a close partnership with the power plants, Laborelec has been able to build up expertise in the analysis and solution of vibration problems on large turbomachinery. This paper describes a case study of increased vibrations of a 1000 MW generator with a 4-pole rotor in a nuclear power plant, due to shorted field windings in the rotor. Conventional detection methods for shorted field windings could not be easily applied for this unit. A comprehensive analysis of the vibration behaviour and an access to the complete history of the rotor’s operation and maintenance made it possible to identify the presence of shorted rotor field windings as the main cause of the increased vibrations. In order to maintain a reliable operation of the unit until the next opportunity to exchange the rotor, a detailed monitoring program was set up and measures were taken to reduce the vibrations on the unit and its peripheral equipment to acceptable levels. These measures included a field balancing correction, supported by a rotor dynamic analysis of the shaft train. The rotor will be exchanged at its next overhaul opportunity. The detailed analysis and monitoring enabled the owner to plan the rotor exchange well in advance and thus to reduce the related costs of the intervention.

Investigation of aerosol based emission of MEA due to sulphuric acid aerosol and soot in a Post Combustion CO2 Capture process

Purvil Khakharia; Leonie Brachert; Jan Mertens; Arjen Huizinga; Bernd Schallert; Karlheinz Schaber; Thijs J.H. Vlugt; Earl Goetheer,

International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Volume 19, November 2013, Pages 138-144

Abstract: The prevention of emissions of amine species is of high importance for the overall sustainability and performance of Post Combustion CO2 Capture facilities. There is a clear understanding of amine emissions based on volatility in the treated flue gas. Emission via aerosols from Post Combustion CO2 Capture facilities has only been pointed out recently. Thus, there is little knowledge about emission via aerosols in contrast to emission based on volatility. It has been found that flue gas quality plays an important role for emissions caused by aerosols formation. In this work, we study the experimental assessment of the impact of flue gas quality on the level of monoethanolamine (MEA) emission via aerosols. In a dedicated test rig, effects of the flue gas components such as sulphuric acid aerosols and extremely fine particles like soot has been studied. An aerosol generator capable of producing controlled amounts of soot and dosing sulphuric acid aerosol to a mobile CO2 capture mini-plant was used as a test equipment for this study. Soot particle number concentration were in the range of 104–106 per cm3. The particle number concentration for different amount of H2SO4 aerosols were in the order of 108 per cm3. Amine emissions up to 4.3 ppmv (12 mg/N m3 for MEA) is considered to be as an upper limit for the design of a Post Combustion CO2 Capture plant. MEA emissions in the presence of soot particles were in the range of 100–200 mg/N m3 which is 2–4 times higher than baseline vapour based emissions of about 45 mg/N m3. The expected particle size of H2SO4 aerosols is well below 100 nm, while the corresponding mass concentration range is between 1 and 5 mg/m3. The MEA emissions observed due to H2SO4 aerosols were in the range of 600–1100 mg/N m3. Moreover, parametric tests have shown that besides flue gas quality, the absorber temperature profile and the presence of CO2 in the flue gas are pre-requisite for aerosol emissions. It is evident that the observed level of emissions in this study are unacceptable. Therefore, it is imperative that fundamental know-how about aerosol formation and reduction is generated in order to design appropriate counter measures.

Remote distributed optical fibre dose measuring of high gamma-irradiation with highly sensitive Al- and P-doped fibres

Alexey V. Faustov; A. Gusarov; Marc Wuilpart; Andrei A. Fotiadi; Leonid B. Liokumovich; I. O. Zolotovskiy; Alexandr L. Tomashuk; Tanguy de Schoutheete; Patrice Megret

Part of Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 8774 Optical Sensors 2013 (15-17 April 2013) ; paper 8774-2, Session 1

Abstract: We present our results on measuring distributed Radiation-Induced Attenuation (RIA) by means of a commercially available Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry (OFDR) system. We chose four different highly gamma-radiation sensitive fibres, two of which were doped with Al and two with P. The dose rate during irradiation was about 560Gy/h. The irradiation were conducted at two temperatures of 30°C and 80°C. The irradiation at different temperature were needed for taking into account temperature dependence of the annealing speed of RIA. The RIA measurements were taken by means of two techniques. First one consisted in the spatially integrated spectral transmission detection using an Optical Spectra Analyser (OSA) and the second was based on distributed RIA measuring by means of the OFDR. All four fibres demonstrated a high saturation-like increase of RIA with the dose up to several tens of decibels per meter detected by OSA. In case of OFDR measurements the change of the attenuation in an optical fibre resulted in a change of the slope of the corresponding Rayleigh backscattering trace which was clearly observed during the experiments. The RIA dependences measured with the OFDR were in a reasonable agreement with the measurements obtained with OSA. This allows us to use the dependences of RIA on absorption dose obtained by means of OSA for the distributed dose measuring based on the OFDR technique. We also irradiated different lengths of one of the P-doped fibers to see if it influences accuracy of the distributed dose detection. The results of the presented experiments are noteworthy since they are considered to be a basis for a dose estimation model based on RIA in which temperature oscillations are taken into account.

Small ring testing of a creep resistant material

Christopher J. Hyde; T. H. Hyde; W. Sun; Steve NARDONE; Evy De Bruycker

Materials Science and Engineering: A, Volume 586, 1 December 2013, Pages 358–366

Abstract: Many components in conventional and nuclear power plant, aero-engines, chemical plant etc., operate at temperatures which are high enough for creep to occur. These include steam pipes, pipe branches, gas and steam turbine blades, etc. The manufacture of such components may also require welds to be part of them. In most cases, only nominal operating conditions (i.e. pressure, temperatures, system load, etc.) are known and hence precise life predictions for these components are not possible. Also, the proportion of life consumed will vary from position to position within a component. Hence, non-destructive techniques are adopted to assist in making decisions on whether to repair, continue operating or replace certain components. One such approach is to test a small sample removed from the component to make small creep test specimens which can be tested to give information on the remaining creep life of the component. When such a small sample cannot be removed from the operating component, e.g. in the case of small components, the component can be taken out of operation in order to make small creep test specimens, the results from which can then be used to assist with making decisions regarding similar or future components. This paper presents a small creep test specimen which can be used for the testing of particularly strong and creep resistant materials, such as nickel-based superalloys.

The challenge of measuring sulfuric acid aerosols : Number concentration and size evaluation using a condensation particle counter (CPC) and an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI+)

Leonie Brachert; Jan Mertens; Purvil Khakharia; Karlheinz Schaber

Journal of Aerosol Science, volume 67 (2014), pp. 21–27

Abstract: In this study, two different methods for the measurement of the sulfuric acid aerosol which is formed in wet flue gas cleaning processes have been investigated. The condensation particle counter (UFCPC, PALAS GmbH) provides information about the number concentration. With the electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI+, Dekati Ltd.) also the size evaluation is possible. Both measurement methods reveal number concentrations above 108 cm−3 under well controlled conditions in a pilot plant and the good conformance of the both methods is shown. With the ELPI+ the effect of dilution on the size of the volatile aerosol can be observed. The predicted trend of an existing simulation tool can be verified: the higher the sulfuric acid concentration, the larger are the droplet sizes. The number concentration, however, doesn´t change considerably when altering the sulfuric acid concentration.

The Influence of Allocation on the Carbon Footprint of Electricity Production from Waste Gas, a Case Study for Blast Furnace Gas

Maarten Messagie; Fayçal Boureima; Jan Mertens; Javier Sanfelix; Cathy Macharis; Joeri Van Mierlo

Energies 2013, 6, pp. 1217-1232

Abstract: Producing electricity from waste gas is an after treatment for waste gas while recovering the energy content. This paper addresses the methodology to calculate the effect that waste gas energy recovery has on lowering the impact of climate change. Greenhouse gases are emitted while burning the waste gas. However, a thorough study should include the production of the feedstock as well as the production of the infrastructure. A framework is developed to calculate the environmental impact of electricity production from waste gas with a life cycle approach. The present paper has a twofold purpose: to assess the climate change impact of generating electricity with blast furnace gas (BFG) as a waste gas from the steel industry; and to establish a sensitivity assessment of the environmental implications of different allocation rules.

Understanding ethanolamine (MEA) and ammonia emissions from amine based post combustion carbon capture : Lessons learned from field tests

Jan Mertens; Hélène Lepaumier; Dominique Desagher; Marie-Laure Thielens

International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Volume 13, March 2013, pp. 72-77

Abstract: The study discusses the origin and driving factors of the ammonia (NH3) and ethanolamine (MEA) emissions from post combustion carbon capture (PCCC) pilot installations. The objective of this research is not presenting PCCC emission values as such but presenting the current understanding of the different emission processes based on pilot plant FTIR measurements. NH3 is being continuously produced as a result of the oxidative degradation of MEA. The study shows that its emission level is closely correlated to the solvent metal ion concentration. A good solvent chemistry in which metal ion concentrations are kept low is required to minimise NH3 emissions. The fluctuating behaviour of the MEA emissions is found to be related to mist (aerosol) formation phenomena. Whether and to what extent mist is formed depends to a large extent on the flue gas composition upstream the CO2 capture plant and on the carbon capture pilot plant's design and operating conditions. Preliminary tests suggest that a single water wash is efficient for the removal of gaseous MEA emissions but may not be suitable for the removal of the submicron mist emissions.

Water availability footprint of electricity production

Anne Prieur-Vernat; Jan Mertens

Life Cycle Management conference

Abstract: Accounting for impacts on water resources due to power production is needed to have a complete view of its environmental performance. As part of the periodically updated Life Cycle Assessment on the electricity produced by its power plants, GDF SUEZ has assessed the water availability footprint of its 2011 electricity production with the method developed by Boulay et al. in 2011. The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact associated to water use for electricity production, including both water used at the power plant and water used for the supply of fuels. Data collected for the environmental reporting of all GDF SUEZ power plants have been used and the water use is detailed by source (surface or ground water) and by use within the power plant (cooling or industrial). The actual yearly average efficiency of each power plant as well as the location of the power plants is considered into the modeling. Around 400 production sites are included in the modeling, located in 36 different countries around the world. Background data have been taken from the Waterdatabase developed by Quantis International. The outcomes of the study show that background processes (supply chains of the fuel used and infrastructures to a lesser extent) have an important contribution to the water availability footprint: whereas they represent 30% of the total freshwater consumed per kWh produced, their contribution reaches 44% of the water availability footprint. This study also demonstrate that impacts related to water use are highly sensitive to the electricity generation technology, but for a given technology, the results show an important variation of water availability footprint with the regional distribution: as an example, the specific fresh water consumption for the production of one kWh electricity in GDF SUEZ combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT) in Benelux & Germany is three times lower than for CCGT in North America, but their impact is two and a half time higher, due to local conditions. Those results are an interesting basis that can be used to define action plans at the Group level towards a better management of local water resources and of the water and energy nexus.

Technical Publications 2012


Understanding ethanolamine (MEA) and ammonia emissions from amine based post combustion carbon capture: Lessons learned from field tests

Jan Mertens, Helene Lepaumier, Dominique Desagher, Marie-Laure Thielens

International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Volume 13, March 2013, Pages 72-77, ISSN 1750-5836, 10.1016/j.ijggc.2012.12.013.

Abstract: The study discusses the origin and driving factors of the ammonia (NH3) and ethanolamine (MEA) emissions from post combustion carbon capture (PCCC) pilot installations. The objective of this research is not presenting PCCC emission values as such but presenting the current understanding of the different emission processes based on pilot plant FTIR measurements. NH3 is being continuously produced as a result of the oxidative degradation of MEA. The study shows that its emission level is closely correlated to the solvent metal ion concentration. A good solvent chemistry in which metal ion concentrations are kept low is required to minimise NH3 emissions. The fluctuating behaviour of the MEA emissions is found to be related to mist (aerosol) formation phenomena. Whether and to what extent mist is formed depends to a large extent on the flue gas composition upstream the CO2 capture plant and on the carbon capture pilot plant's design and operating conditions. Preliminary tests suggest that a single water wash is efficient for the removal of gaseous MEA emissions but may not be suitable for the removal of the submicron mist emissions.

Keywords: Ethanolamine; Ammonia; Gaseous emission measurement; Aerosols; Mist; Post combustion carbon capture; Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR)

Het gebruik van flexibiliteit om de energierekening van bedrijven te reduceren

Marcel Didden, Laborelec

Gestion de l’énergie et efficacité énergétique : exemples pratiques d’applications dans l’industrie, les bâtiments et le résidentiel. | Energiebeheer en energie‐efficiëntie: praktische voorbeelden van toepassingen in de industrie, in gebouwen en privéwoningen (23 avril 2013 | 23 april 2013)

The Smart Home Energy Lab: the residential customer stands up!

Rafael Jahn, Laborelec

Gestion de l’énergie et efficacité énergétique : exemples pratiques d’applications dans l’industrie, les bâtiments et le résidentiel. | Energiebeheer en energie‐efficiëntie: praktische voorbeelden van toepassingen in de industrie, in gebouwen en privéwoningen (23 avril 2013 | 23 april 2013)

Measurement of the force induced by thermal expansion of conductor of MV cables and impact on MV joints

B Hennuy, Laborelec, Linkebeek, Belgium, F Steennis, Kema, Arnhem, Netherlands, B Aerns, T van Rijn, Liander, Arnhem, Netherlands, P Oosterlee, Delta Netwerkbedrijf, Middelburg, Netherlands, P Leemans, Eandis, Melle, Belgium , P Soepboer, Enexis, Rosmalen, Netherlands, R Meier, Lovink, Terborg, Netherlands, E de Ridder, Nexans, Erembodegem, Belgium, H Grandjean, Ores, Louvain-La-Neuve, Belgium, M Van Den Berg, Sibelga, Brussels, Belgium, P Buys, Stedin, Rotterdam, Netherlands, L Bokma, Westland Infra, Poeldijk, Netherlands

CIRED 2013 (10-13 June 2013), paper 0128 (session 1)

Partial discharge monitoring on MV switchgear

M De Witte, Y Tits, M Arens, Laborelec, Linkebeek, Belgium, A François, Ores, Wallonia, Belgium, M Van Den Berg, Sibelga, Brussels, Belgium, J Van Slycken, Eandis, Flanders, Belgium

CIRED 2013 (10-13 June 2013), paper 0393 (session 1)

Lack of standardization concerning interfaces between network equipments

Y L Tits, M Arens, Laborelec, Linkebeek, Belgium, A François, Ores, Louvain la Neuve, Belgium, W De Maesschalck, Eandis, Melle, Belgium, M Van Den Berg, Sibelga, Brussels, Belgium

CIRED 2013 (10-13 June 2013), paper 0541 (session 1)

Ageing and improvement of LV underground extruded cables systems

Q De Clerck, B Hennuy, Laborelec, Linkebeek, Belgium, P Leemans, Eandis, Melle, Belgium, M Van Den Berg, J Dept, Sibelga, Brussel, Belgium, H Grandjean, Ores, Marche-En-Famenne, Belgium

CIRED 2013 (10-13 June 2013), paper 0581 (session 1)

Influence of the surroundings and mainly of the soil on MV cable systems

M Burceanu, B Hennuy, Q De Clerck, Laborelec, Linkebeek, Belgium, H Grandjean, ORES, Marche-En-Famenne, Belgium, M Van Den Berg, Sibelga, Bruxelles, Belgium, K Daems, P Leemans, Eandis, Melle, Belgium

CIRED 2013 (10-13 June 2013), paper 0651 (session 1)

Conductivity and quality of semi-conductive materials in MV cable accessories

N Quiévy, J Girboux, Q De Clerck, B Hennuy, Laborelec, Linkebeek, Belgium, P Leemans, Eandis, Melle, Belgium, M Van Den Berg, Sibelga, Brussels, Belgium, H Grandjean, ORES, Marche-En-Famenne, Belgium

CIRED 2013 (10-13 June 2013), paper 1341 (session 1)

Thermal behavior of connectors in joints

P Leemans, K Daems, Eandis, Melle, Belgium, H Grandjean, Ores, Aye, Belgium, M Van Den Berg, Sibelga, Brussels, Belgium, Q De Clerck, B Hennuy, Laborelec, Linkebeek, Belgium

CIRED 2013 (10-13 June 2013), paper 1377 (session 1)

Thermal behaviour of cables installed via directional drilling

K Daems, P Leemans, Eandis, Melle, Belgium, Q Declerck, M Burceanu, B Hennuy, Laborelec, Linkebeek, Belgium, H Grandjean, Ores, Aye, Belgium, M Van den Berg, Sibelga, Bruxelles, Belgium

CIRED 2013 (10-13 June 2013), paper 1411 (session 1)

PLC noise and impedance measurements on loads and in the distribution grid

R Jahn, S Uytterhoeven, D Lemmens, W Foubert, Laborelec, Linkebeek, Belgium

CIRED 2013 (10-13 June 2013), paper 1435 (session 2)

An advanced measurement method for power flow in medium voltage grids

S Uytterhoeven, S Doucement, M Dascotte, Laborelec, Brussels, Belgium

CIRED 2013 (10-13 June 2013), paper 0502 (session 3)

Living lab ‘Rotterdam tests electric driving' (focus on the monitoring of the impact on the electricity grid)

H Fidder, Stedin, Rotterdam, Netherlands, S Neuray, Eneco, Rotterdam, Netherlands, J Streng, City of Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands, R Jahn, M V Luming, Laborelec, Linkebeek, Belgium,

CIRED 2013 (10-13 June 2013), paper 1456 (session 5)

Modelling unsteady flow of a lean partially premixed flame on a dry low NOx combustion system

Salvatore Matarazzo, Hannes Laget, Evert Vanderhaegen and J.B.W. Kok

ASME Turbo Expo conference (June 2013), paper GT2013-94969

Water availability footprint of electricity production

Anne Prieur-Vernat, Jan Mertens

Life Cycle Management conference 2013

Accounting for impacts on water resources due to power production is needed to have a complete view of its environmental performance. As part of the periodically updated Life Cycle Assessment on the electricity produced by its power plants, GDF SUEZ has assessed the water availability footprint of its 2011 electricity production with the method developed by Boulay et al. in 2011. The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact associated to water use for electricity production, including both water used at the power plant and water used for the supply of fuels.

Data collected for the environmental reporting of all GDF SUEZ power plants have been used and the water use is detailed by source (surface or ground water) and by use within the power plant (cooling or industrial). The actual yearly average efficiency of each power plant as well as the location of the power plants is considered into the modeling. Around 400 production sites are included in the modeling, located in 36 different countries around the world. Background data have been taken from the Waterdatabase developed by Quantis International. The outcomes of the study show that background processes (supply chains of the fuel used and infrastructures to a lesser extent) have an important contribution to the water availability footprint: whereas they represent 30% of the total freshwater consumed per kWh produced, their contribution reaches 44% of the water availability footprint.

This study also demonstrate that impacts related to water use are highly sensitive to the electricity generation technology, but for a given technology, the results show an important variation of water availability footprint with the regional distribution: as an example, the specific fresh water consumption for the production of one kWh electricity in GDF SUEZ combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT) in Benelux & Germany is three times lower than for CCGT in North America, but their impact is two and a half time higher, due to local conditions. Those results are an interesting basis that can be used to define action plans at the Group level towards a better management of local water resources and of the water and energy nexus.

Detection and monitoring of shorted field windings in a large 4-pole generator rotor through vibration analysis: a case study

Ir. Koenraad De Bauw, Ir. Mirza Osmanovic, Ir. Kris Matthys

SIRM 2013 - 10th International Conference on Vibrations in Rotating Machines, Berlin, Germany, 25. – 27. February 2013

Laborelec is responsible for the follow-up of the vibration behaviour of a fleet of more than 100 shaft lines within the power generation division of GDF-Suez. Based on an experience of more than 20 years with continuous vibration monitoring in a close partnership with the power plants, Laborelec has been able to build up expertise in the analysis and solution of vibration problems on large turbomachinery. This paper describes a case study of increased vibrations of a 1000 MW generator with a 4-pole rotor in a nuclear power plant, due to shorted field windings in the rotor. Conventional detection methods for shorted field windings could not be easily applied for this unit. A comprehensive analysis of the vibration behaviour and an access to the complete history of the rotor’s operation and maintenance made it possible to identify the presence of shorted rotor field windings as the main cause of the increased vibrations. In order to maintain a reliable operation of the unit until the next opportunity to exchange the rotor, a detailed monitoring program was set up and measures were taken to reduce the vibrations on the unit and its peripheral equipment to acceptable levels. These measures included a field balancing correction, supported by a rotor dynamic analysis of the shaft train. The rotor will be exchanged at its next overhaul opportunity. The detailed analysis and monitoring enabled the owner to plan the rotor exchange well in advance and thus to reduce the related costs of the intervention.

Technical publications 2011

3 kHz Accelerated Growth of Water Trees in Medium Voltage Extruded Cables B. Hennuy, Q. De Clerck, Laborelec, Belgium 8th International Conference on Insulated Power Cables, Jicable, 19-23 June 2011, Versailles (France) A Power Line Communication measuring toolbox for the distribution grid R. Jahn, D. Lemmens, S. Uytterhoeven, Laborelec, Belgium 21st International Conference on Electricity Distribution, CIRED 2011, 6-9-June 2011, Frankfurt (Germany), Paper 1172 Applicability of methanol as new marker for paper degradation in power transformers A. Schaut, S. Autru, S. Eeckhoudt, Laborelec, Belgium IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, Volume 18, Issue 2, April 2011, pages 533 – 540 Automated Equilibrium Tension Lysimeters for Measuring Water Fluxes through a Layered, Volcanic Vadose Profile in New Zealand G.F. Barkle, Aqualinc Research Limited, New Zealand Th. Wöhling, R. Stenger, B. Moorhead, A. Wall, J. Clague, Lincoln Environmental Research, New Zealand J. Mertens, Laborelec, Belgium Vadose Zone Journal, May 2011 v. 10 no. 2, pages 747-759 Ecodesign in de tertiaire verlichting M. Vanden Bosch, Laborelec, Belgium Revue E (Société Royale Belge des Electriciens), 2011, Vol. 127, N° 2, pages 16-21 Failure analysis of a third stage gas turbine blade S. Barella, M. Boniardi, S. Cincera, P. Pellin, Politecnico di Milano (Italy) X. Degive, S. Gijbels, Laborelec, Belgium Engineering Failure Analysis, Volume 18, Issue 1, January 2011, pages 386–393 Harmonic behaviour of two commercial PV converters under distorted voltages M. De Witte, Y. Pankow, Laborelec, Belgium F. Colas, L2EP, France 21st International Conference on Electricity Distribution, CIRED 2011, 6-9-June 2011, Frankfurt (Germany), Paper 1130 Impact of Variable Length Codes on the Interleaving Gain of Turbo Systems: The Concept of Bounded Spectrum X. Jaspar, Graduate Student Member, IEEE L. Vandendorpe, Fellow, IEEE IEEE Transactions on Communications, July 2011, Volume 59, Issue 7, pages 1796 – 1806 Incompatibility between MV Switchgear conform the international standards and their use in DNO's substations M. Arens, Y. Tits, Laborelec, Belgium J. Marginet, Eandis, Belgium A. François, Ores, Belgium M. van den Berg, Sibelga, Belgium 21st International Conference on Electricity Distribution, CIRED 2011, 6-9-June 2011, Frankfurt (Germany), Paper 0950 Life time estimation of SF6 MV switchgear according to on-site conditions on DNO's distribution networks Y. Tits, G. Delouvroy, Laborelec, Belgium J. Marginet, Eandis, Belgium A. François, Ores, Belgium M. van den Berg, Sibelga, Belgium 21st International Conference on Electricity Distribution, CIRED 2011, 6-9-June 2011, Frankfurt (Germany), Paper 0971 Microstructure of two centrifugal cast high speed steels for hot strip mills applications V. Vitry, F. Delaunois, Service de Métallurgie, Université de Mons, Belgium S. Nardone, Laborelec, Belgium J.-P. Breyer, M. Sinnaeve, Marichal Ketin, Belgium Materials and Design 34, Volume 32, Issue 1, January 2011, pages 372–378 Modelling of the heat transfer in a gas turbine liner combustor S. Matarazzo, H. Laget, Laborelec, Belgium 7th Mediterranean Combustion Symposium, 11-15 September 2011, Cagliari (Italy) New test results with 3khz accelerated growth of water trees in medium voltage cables B. Hennuy, Q. De Clerck, Laborelec, Belgium J. Marginet, P. Leemans, Eandis, Belgium D. Tenret, A. François, ORES, Belgium 21st International Conference on Electricity Distribution, CIRED 2011, 6-9-June 2011, Frankfurt (Germany), Paper 0679 Non-destructive DP analysis of kraft paper from shell-type power transformers P. Baird, H. Herman, G. Stevens, GnoSys UK Ltd, United Kingdom A. Schaut, Laborelec, Belgium 21st International Conference on Electricity Distribution, CIRED 2011, 6-9-June 2011, Frankfurt (Germany), Paper 1030 On-line monitoring and controlling emissions in amine post combustion carbon capture: A field test J. Mertens, M.-L. Thielens, Laborelec, Belgium J. Knudsen, J. Andersen, DONG Energy, Denmark International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Volume 6, January 2012, Pages 2–11 The use of smart meters to improve customer load models F. Provoost, Alliander, the Netherlands M. Van Lumig, Laborelec, Belgium 21st International Conference on Electricity Distribution, CIRED 2011, 6-9-June 2011, Frankfurt (Germany), Paper 0799 ...